What are key circular economy strategies?

There are specific strategies for the biosphere and technosphere, to define ‘how to do it”.

For the biosphere, regeneration can happen through industrial or natural processes to add the nutrients back to nature.

For the Technosphere, the strategies are:

  • Share (products)
  • Maintain (products)
  • Reuse (products)
  • Repair (products)
  • Refurbish (components )
  • Remanufacture (components )
  • Upcycle (materials)
  • Recycle (materials)

From an economic process perspective,


Braungart and McDonoough proposed 5 ways to assess materials and products;

  • Material health, which involves identifying the chemical composition of the materials that make up the product.
  • Material reutilization, which is about recovery and recycling at the end of product life
  • Assessment of energy required for production
  • Water, particularly usage and discharge quality
  • Social responsibility, which assesses fair labor practices


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